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English language exam oral topics [22]
Contains English language exam oral topics that I wrote for my ECL C1 exam in 2012. I hope you can use my "notes" and thoughts about the topics, and learn from them for your exams.
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Érettségi szóbeli tételek 2014 tavasz [20]
2014 tavaszi érettségi anyagok, kidolgozott szóbeli tételek
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    Home » Articles » School supplements/ Iskolai kiegészítő anyagok » English language exam oral topics

    16 European Union

     The European Union (EU is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational independent institutions and in governmentally made decisions negotiated by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area (which includes EU and non-EU states) passport controls have been abolished, though, some of the EU member states still have to use passports to travel abroad. A monetary union, the euro zone was established in 1999 and is currently composed of 17 member states. The first plans of using Euro in Hungary were told in 2005, but there are lots of difficulties for Hungary to change the monetary system. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy the EU has developed a limited role in external relations and defense.

     

     The EU’S member states cover an area of 4,4 million square kilometers, including the overseas territories of member states. The EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic to tropical, rendering metrological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless. The European Union is composed of 27 sovereign member states.

     

     The EU operates solely within those competencies conferred on it upon the treaties and according to the principle of subsidarity. Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Generally speaking they can be classified into two groups: those which come into force without the necessity for national implementation measures, and those which specifically require national implementation measures.

     

     The European Union has seven institutions: the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Council, the European Central Bank, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Auditors.

     

     The European Council gives direction to the EU and convenes at least four times a year. The European Council has been described by some as the Union’s „supreme political authority” It is actively involved in the negotiation of the treaty changes and defines the EU’s policy agenda and strategies. The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies.

     

     The Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are directly elected by EU citizens every five years on the basis of proportional representation to the share of votes collected by each political party. Although, MEPs are elected on a national basis, they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

     

     The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU and then made amendments to those funding treaties. These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions with the necessary legal powers to implement those goals.

     

     The European Commissions Humanitarian Aid Office or „ECHO” provides humanitarian aid from the EU to developing countries.

     The EU has established a single market across the territory of all its members. A monetary union, the euro zone, using a single currency comprises 17 member states.

     

     The policy has the objectives of increasing agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, establishing markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers.

     

     There are now similar programs for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training, and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Program 2007-2013. These programs are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

     

     A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities. All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

     

     Language policy is the responsibility of member states, but EU institutions promote the learning of other languages. English is the most spoken language in the EU and is spoken by 51% of the EU population counting both native and non-native speakers. German is the most widely spoken mother tongue. In the most important situations, for example in the sessions of the European Parliament, a team of interpreters provides simultaneous translation of the proceedings into all the official languages. Other meetings are hold in one of the main languages: English, French or German. Official documents are translated into the official languages. The objective is to ensure that no member state is disadvantaged because its language is not a popular international language.

     

     

    Category: English language exam oral topics | Added by: LumiereBlackwood (20 Jul 2013)
    Views: 2671 | Comments: 1 | Rating: 4.0/1
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